i

i1   [i(ʔ)] allomorph of the article before l. i l incítxʷ. To my house.

i-2   [i] Morph: i-. Variant: in-1. -n-less allomorph of in- before s-, ɬ, n "my".

1 • before s. iskʷíst. isl̕áx̌t. My good friend. My name.

2 • before ɬ. iɬcəcʔúps. My younger sister. iɬqáqcaʔ. My older brother(s).

3 • before n. in̓ín̓k̓mən. My knife. inxaʔcín My ancestors. inxaʔxʔít. My elders.

i-3   [i] Morph: i-. first person singular of the i- paradigm "I, my".

1 • in nominalized middle forms. iswíkəm. What I have seen.

2 • in future nominal intransitive constructions. lut kʷ t̓ ikstiʔxʷkʷúnəm. I wouldn't say that to you. ha kʷ iksʔamnám Can I feed you? ha iksʔamnáməlx. Can I feed them, am I going to feed them? kʷ iksƛ̓əlnúnəm. I'll kill you. ikspəlstnúnəm. I'll kill him. iksƛ̓lˑnúnm. I'll kill him.

3 • in perfective sc- nominal constructions. lut ixíʔ t̓ isck̓ʷúl̕. And I hadn't done it. ixíʔ isck̓ʷúl̕əm iʔ stməlscút. I was fixing beads. iscmipnwíɬən. My knowledge.

3 • in k(ɬ)+ "to be" constructions. kʷu xʷic̓xt t ikspəx̌páx̌t, mi lut iksənɬípt. Give me knowledge so that I won't forget. See: s+2; ks-2; sc-3; k(ɬ)-.

-i4   [i] Morph: -i. transitive imperative plural "you (folks)". kʷu k̓əɬpaʔx̌xíti. Think of somethin for me! uɬ way̓ kʷu k̓əwpmínti. Stop talking to me! cúnti. Tell her! See: -y.

i lútiʔ   Morph: i lútiʔ. Etym: √lt. not yet. See: iʔ lútiʔ.

ic̓   body cover, outer cover. kiy-ic̓-ásq̓ət. It̓s very cold.

ic̓asq̓t   [ic̓ásq̓ət] Morph: ic̓ásq̓t. Variant: íc̓aʔ; ác̓aʔ; aʕc̓aʔ. cold day. kiyic̓ásq̓ət. It’s very cold. See: ic̓aʔ; asq̓t.

íc̓aʔ   [íc̓aʔ] Morph: íc̓aʔ. Variant: ic̓; ác̓aʔ; c̓aʔ; áʕc̓aʔ. surface; hide; (body) cover, outer cover. kckʷíc̓aʔ. Pull a blanket off. cnmtíc̓aʔ. Man’s name. sc̓aʔkʷíc̓aʔ. Summer hide. kil̕wíc̓aʔ. Bushel. t-kaʔɬl꞊íc̓aʔ. Three bundles. kʷlíc̓aʔ. Be dressed warm; warm clothing. tk̓síc̓aʔ. Bad clothes. cəlkstíc̓aʔ. Five hides or coverings. kəlk̓əlk̓íc̓aʔ. Things wrapped up. sƛ̓aʔcnmíc̓aʔ. Deer hide. sməlk̓ʷíc̓aʔ. Sleeping bag. knəqsíc̓aʔ. A(nother) bundle. kp̓əlk̓ʷíc̓aʔ. Wrap something. kp̓əlp̓lk̓ʷíc̓aʔ. Cigarettes. sqəlíc̓aʔ. Raw pelt. tqəltkíc̓aʔ. Top clothes, outer wear. sqəpcíc̓aʔ. Spring hide. qʷəspíc̓aʔ. Buffalo. ksp̓íc̓aʔ. Whip s.o. ksaʔxíc̓aʔ. Body cools off. ksyxpíc̓aʔ. To have bailed hay. ktəmxʷíc̓aʔ. Wear out one's clothes. stənxíc̓aʔ. Beaver hides. kt̓əɬɬíc̓aʔ. Dirty body. st̓xʷlíc̓aʔ. Multi-colored blanket. wríc̓aʔ. Start a fire. xʷstmníc̓aʔ. Man's name. syxpíc̓aʔ. Bailed hay. ʕax̌íc̓aʔ. A rope to string deer hides. ʕax̌íc̓aʔm. Tie the skin to the tanning frame. nʔap̓nkíc̓aʔtn. Locoweed. Sp -íc̓eʔ blanket; outside covering of something; Cr ic̓eʔ all around, all over; Sh -ic̓eʔ surface, hide; Th íc̓eʔ outer-coverning; Li -ic̓aʔ clothing, covering, skin.

ic̓íʔstn̓   [ic̓íʔstn̓.] Morph: yc̓iʔs+tn̓. Etym: √yc̓. large horsetail (equisetum hyemale). ic̓íʔstn̓. See: yc̓iʔstn̓.

ih   [ih] Morph: ih. unclear semantic import. ih t̓i náx̌əmɬ ikspúlstəm t iʔ kʷu pulɬts ist̓əmkʔílt. But I am going to kill the one who killed my daughter. ih, itlíʔ qícəlx, kswitmíst. Then he runs, he's doing his best.

ik1   [ik] Morph: ik. Variant: ikn; ikn̓; kn; kn̓. allomorph of íkn̓ "back" (anatomy); "top layer; crust," before -iʔ transitive. nkcəníkiʔs. He overtook him. kʕacíkiʔs. He ties it together. nkəcníkiʔs. They caught up to them. tk̓ʷíxʷkiʔs. She unties a bundle.

ik2   [ik] Morph: ik. Variant: ikst; akst; kst; ks. Etym: k. hand. kcwtikxtn. I was having s.t. unpleasant done to him. See: kst.

íkaʔst   [íkaʔst] Morph: íkaʔst. Variant: ikst; akst; aks; kst; ks7; ik(s); ik2; ákaʔst. hand, wrist, branch. tkaʔkaʔɬl̕íkaʔst. Prince's pine and mountain valerian. tkkaʔkaʔɬl̕íkaʔst. Little prince’s pine. q̓ʷəq̓ʷmíˑˑkaʔst. Curled up. sk̓əɬirk̓ʷcn̓íkaʔst. Bracelet.

ikn   [ikṇ] Morph: ikn. Variant: ikn̓; kn̓; ik1; k. back; surface; ice. xʷstikn. Man's name (Dennis Armstrong). kʷ iksənƛ̓m̓íknəm. I'm going to walk behind you. kɬʔamˑtíkn. To foll (on the ice). lək̓íkn. Rope for tying a bundle/pack. nxəlkíkən iʔ t̓uxʷt. Helicopter. kɬqʷaʔqʷʕaʔxníkən. Skating on ice. sk̓míkəns. Its edge. nxəlˑkíkən. Saddle sliding off a horse. kcərqmíkən̓. Jump on the ice. nkəcníkən. I catch up with him. Sp √-ičn (-ičn̓) (-ič) (-i) back; Cr ičn̓ back; t+xʷ+xʷík̓ʷ+xʷak̓ʷečen̓us frosty eyebrows; ʕecičn̓ bow; s+či·tíʔčn̓ east; s+max̌íʔčn̓ bear; Sh -ikn upper back, top surface;

iknxn   [íkənxən] Morph: iknxn. sole of foot. nt̓əɬt̓ɬíknxən. Rubber soled shoes. See: ikn; xn.

ikn̓   [íkən̓] Morph: ikn̓. Variant: ikn; kn̓; ik. back (anatomy); top layer; crust; fence. nkəcníkən̓. To catch up. kcəxíkn To bring in a pack of food. ṇk̓ək̓tíkən̓. To be right behind. ɬaʔíkn̓. To be or arrive next to a fence. nɬq̓əlxíkn̓. To lie flat on one's back. səmx̌íkən̓. Grizzly. kɬqcəlxíkən̓. To run on crusty snow. nskʷíkən̓. To get a sore back. səltíkn̓. Man's name. xʷstíkən̓ Man's name. kɬʕax̌íkən̓tn. Laces. ʔacqəʔíkən̓. Go thru bodies (?) ʔamtíkn. To ride.

iks   [iks] Morph: iks. Gram: before nt transitive Variant: ikst; akst; aks; kst; ik(s); ik2; ks7; íkaʔst; ákaʔst; aʕkst. hand. kʷu ncucəwíksənt. Mimic my actions! kn̓iksn. I helped her (walk) by holding her hand. kʷu nq̓aʔíksəs. He gave me one (put it in the palm of my hand). nxƛ̓íksən. I give s.t. to each (to several persons).

ikst   [ikst] Morph: ikst. Variant: akst; aks; kst; ks7; ik(s); íkaʔst; ákaʔst; aʕkst. hand; branch. schikst. The right hand. cunmaʔkíkstəm. To tell how to do it (by hand). k̓əɬcənmiʔíkstəm. To describe a shape with one's hand; to uses sign language. kcqʷcqʷikst. Beard tongue. cəw̓cəw̓íkstəm. To do the same thing. kc̓r̓c̓r̓ikst. Sourgrass. nc̓aʔq̓íkstəm. Throw objects. stkəlkəlxmíkstən. Branches or limbs (of a tree); sticks. stkm̓km̓xstikst. Black twinberry branch. tkaʔkaʔɬl̕íkst. Mountain valerian. k̓əməlqsíkst. Elbow. nk̓mn̓kikst. The palm of the hand. stk̓mikst. Branches. k̓ik̓yíkst. Cold hands. tkʷaʔríkst. Yellow branches. nlək̓ək̓mníkst. To force s.o. nləʕʷləʕʷíkstəm. To stick a pair of hands through s.t. ɬəc̓píkst. Hit on the hand. ɬuníkstəm. To let go. mymyikst. To be handy. mʔíkstəm. To bother s.o. with some action. skpəllíkst. Sprouts, boughs. qpíkstən. Pot holder. qʷaʔmíkstm. To get used to s.t. sq̓ay̓íkst. Chalk. qʷn̓íkstəm. To do something pitiful to s.o. q̓ʷmikst. Bunch up s.t. ksk̓ʷətíkst. The other hand or side. scsəlíkst. Bastard. spikst. Glove. swíkstəm. To summon s.o. sysúykstm. To get chilled. ktər̓qíkst. Dancer. t̓əcpíkst. The hand stings. stxrikst. Suitcase. uʔíkst. To get done. txʷaʔxʷʔíkst. Three-flowered avens. x̌əccíkst. One hundred. x̌əsx̌síkst. To be good at. x̌aʔsíkstm. To aim. x̌ʷc̓pikst. To break one's arm. ʔackníkstəm. To play with s.t. ʔalhíkst. To shoot straight. nʔax̌líkstəm. Stir s.t. k̓ɬʔayqcníkst. Tie around the wrist. Sp √‑ečst hand, handwork; Sh -eks(t) hand, arm; wind-direction; Th ekst, ákst, eks, ékst, ks, kst hand, lower arm ...; Li -akaʔ hand, arm, finger.

ikxt   [ikxt] Morph: ikxt. manipulation, way of doing. kcwtikxt. To do as one pleases. tk̓ʷənxíkxtəm. An undetermined number of manipulations. kəm̓íkxt. To have a particular way of doing s.t.

ik̓líliʔ   Morph: ik̓lí•liʔ. Etym: √k̓lʔ. over there. ixíʔ ik̓líliʔ lut t̓a lkʷut iʔ təl ɬp̓úlaʔxʷtn tacck̓láʔ ʕapnáʔ ilíʔ kɬxwiɬ. Not very far from the border on this side there is a road there. ik̓líliʔ. Over there a little way.

ik̓líʔ   [ik̓líʔ] Morph: ik̓líʔ. Etym: √k̓lʔ. (to) there; be there. ik̓líʔ kiʔ səxʷtaʔɬulwlím iʔ cítxʷs. The blacksmith’s house is there. way̓ xʷuy k̓əl siwɬkʷ, ik̓líʔ kícx, ṇt̓əpqsám ksíwstaʔx. He went to the water, he got there, he tipped his head to drink. way̓ ixíʔ sxʷúysəlx ik̓líʔ kicəlx sənk̓l̕íp. They went, and they got to Coyote. way̓ cmystíp iʔ miyúlaʔxʷɬmən, ik̓líʔ mi kʷu yaʕmílx. You know the place where I told you to go, we will gather there. iʔ qʷʕásqiʔ, uɬ iʔ ʕanˑ, ixíʔ nixʷ kʷu ck̓ʕancút ik̓líʔ. The Bluejay, and the Magpie, we also pray to them. uɬ ixíʔ nák̓ʷəm ixíʔ iʔ nyʕ̓as ɬc̓q̓mis uɬ iʔ k̓əl təmxʷúlaʔxʷs ik̓líʔ itlíʔ. He threw his spear all the way to his country, from there to there. ik̓líʔ kən kicx iʔ kən k̓amtíw̓s, ik̓líʔ kən kicx. I rode my horse to get there, I got there. kicx ik̓líʔ ṇqəltús iʔ k̓la cənxʷəxʷr̓ús. He got to the top of the mountain where that low place is.

ikʷ1   [ikʷ] Morph: ikʷ. Variant: itkʷ; atkʷ; tkʷ; aʕtkʷ; ikʷ; kʷ; ítaʔkʷ. Etym: tkʷ. water, liquid. səxʷnk̓ʷín̓kʷəm. Wine taster.

-ikʷ2   [ikʷ] Morph: -ikʷ. singular imperative marker with transitive verbs.

1 • with -nt. ckʷntíkʷ. Pull it! ak̓láʔ cqəntíkʷ. Set it here! k̓əlcqəntíkʷ. Put it under! k̓rntikʷ. Cut it (with a knife)! k̓əɬpn̓n̓tíkʷ. Bend it (as when bending a nail after it has pierced a board)! q̓əy̓ntíkʷ. Write it! t̓k̓ʷəntíkʷ. Put it down! ilíʔ t̓əxʷ kɬt̓k̓ʷntíxʷ. Put it there! t̓qntikʷ iʔ supúlaʔxʷ. Stack the hay (in one big stack)! k̓əɬyrəntíkʷ. Circle/prepare (the inside of a Sweat House). ʕacntíkʷ. Tie it! kʷu ʔamtíkʷ t síyaʔ. Feed me some saskatoons! ʔamtíkʷ. Feed him!

2 • with -st. ƛ̓ləlstíkʷ ixiʔ anatmupíl. Kill the engine! ƛ̓əlpstíkʷ. Stop him!

3 • with -ɬt. kʷu c̓x̌ʷc̓x̌ʷɬtikʷ isqʷsqʷsíʔ. Discipline my child! kʷu ck̓laʔxɬtíkʷ iʔ t̓axt. Pass me the sugar (bring it closer to me). k̓ʷƛ̓ɬtikʷ iʔ qiccs. Take off the tire! ƛ̓aʔɬtíkʷ. Get it for him! trrɬtíkʷ iʔ stqəc̓qəc̓pínaʔs. Unravel his/her braids! t̓k̓ʷɬtikʷ. Lay down his X! kʷu ckɬyx̌ɬtíkʷ iʔ lisál. Slide the salt to me! kʷu ʔamɬtíkʷ isqʷsíʔ t síyaʔ. Feed some saskatoons to my son!

ílaʔ   [ílaʔ] Morph: ílaʔ. ? sq̓təɬílaʔm. To bait a line for fish.

ílaʔk̓   [ílaʔk̓] Morph: ílaʔk̓. wood. np̓əp̓nílaʔk̓. Sticks. See Cr el̕č s+t+tax̌+téx̌el̕č doll; Sh el̕k̓ skin, blanket.

ilaʔp   [ílaʔp] Morph: ílaʔp. Variant: ilp; lp. bed; foundation. sttqíl̕aʔpsəlx. Their little bed. sk̓ək̓ʔílaʔp. Former daughter-in-law (wife of dead son).

ílaʔps   [ílaʔps] Morph: ílaʔps. Variant: ilps; alps; lps; alp; ílaʔps. ? txʷəxʷər̓ílaʔps. Place name.

ílaʔs   [ílaʔs] Morph: ilaʔs. Variant: ils; als; ls; lils. company. tkʷkʷílaʔs. Little company.

ílaʔt   [ílaʔt] Morph: ílaʔt. Variant: ilt; il̕t; lt. child(dren). uʔx̌tílaʔt. New born. uʔx̌uʔx̌tílaʔt. Babies. txʷxʷaʔxʷʔílaʔt Lots of little children.

ílaʔx   [ílaʔx] Morph: ílaʔx. Variant: ilx1; lx; aʕlx; lílaʔx; lilx. motion toward s.t.; progress; noise. q̓ʷq̓ʷʔílaʔx. Do a little dance. p ssuʔsw̓ílaʔx. You're whispering low.

ilíkʷlxkn   [ilíkʷləxkən] Morph: ylikʷlxkn. Etym: √ylkʷ. ramhorn; bighorn. See: ylíkʷlxkn.

ililmíxʷm   [ililmíxʷəm] Morph: yl•ylmixʷ+m. Etym: √yl. chiefs; bosses. See: ylylmixʷm.

ilín   [ilín] Morph: ilín. Etym: √ln. Ellen.

ilíx̌   [ilíx̌] Morph: ylix̌. Etym: √ylx̌. ilíx̌. ilíx̌. See: ylix̌.

ilíʔ   [ilíʔ] Morph: ilíʔ. Etym: √lʔ. to let s.o. stay; to stay with s.o. Gram: intransitive ilíˑˑʔ, uɬ itlíʔ xʷuyˑ iʔ suknaqínx. They were there a while, then the Okanagans were gone. axáʔ iʔ ƛ̓əx̌ƛ̓x̌áp k̓əl tʔiwltk kaʔ ilíʔ. An old person was at tʔiwltk. uɬ ilíʔ kən claˑˑk̓, uɬ cq̓ilt ispuʔús. I was in jail a long time, and my heart got sick. k̓aʔkín kiʔ kʷ ilíʔ. Where are you staying? ilíʔ kən ksilíʔaʔx. I'll be staying there. niʕ̓íp ilíʔ iʔ sqilxʷ silíʔx. They stay there all the time. uɬ ixíʔ itíʔ kiʔ yaʔ ilíʔlx, sílxʷaʔ mat. That's where they live. It's big. lut iʔ l citxʷ t̓a cilíʔlx They don't stay in the house. lut aksilíʔ t tk̓ík̓aʔt. Don’t stay too close there. t̓əxʷ t̓i p ilíʔ məɬ x̌lap. Stay here until tomorrow! uɬ incá nixʷ ilíʔ kən ʔx̌íləm. I will do the same. Gram: imperative (?) maʔ ilíʔxəx, n̓ín̓w̓iʔ k̓ʷaʔ iswiʔsʕác̓əm axáʔ iʔ q̓əy̓mín. Just a minue, until I get done looking at this letter. Gram: +st transitive ilíʔstmən. I’ll leave you alone. ilíʔ uɬ t̓i niʕ̓íp ilíʔ kʷu ilíʔstsəlx. They stayed with me a good while. Sp √lʔe here, right here lʔé-s-t-n I left it here; see Cm √lʔkʔ laʔkáʔ where; Sh ʔəlaʔ to get out of the way.

ilíʔm   [ilíʔm] Morph: ilíʔ+m. Etym: √lʔ. to stay with s.o. Gram: +nt transitive way̓ uɬ mat ksx̌an tla nək̓ʷspíntk kiʔ ilíʔmnəlx. And I must have stayed there more than a year. See: ilíʔ.

íliʔs   [íliʔs] Morph: íliʔs. Gram: plural of aw̓s Variant: áliʔs. 1 • group; relatives (plural of iw̓s). capsílíʔs. Several sisters. səncaʔcʔíliʔs. Several younger brothers. ṇsp̓íliʔs. To club several.

2 • joints. sənʕacʕacsíliʔs. Joints. nq̓əlˑsíliʔs. Aching joints.

3 • in several botanical terms. c̓əc̓míliʔs. Red twinberry (berries). t̓əpíliʔs. Goldenrod (older stage). See: aw̓s; iw̓s.

ilmíxʷm   [ilmíxʷəm] Morph: ylmixʷ+m. Etym: √yl. to be chief. See: ylmixʷm.

iln   [ílən] Morph: iln. arrow. c̓q̓ílən. Arrow. Sh -eln: cq̓-eln-m shoot.

ilp   [ilp] Morph: ilp. Variant: lp; ílaʔp. bed, foundation. sx̌lilp. The floor. qʷaʔqʷʕaʔílpəm. Sliding (on snow). naɬʔílp. The other side. yaʔk̓ʷílp. To go across. ck̓əlnixʔílp. On this side of the room. qəltkn̓ílp. Anywhere outside the tipi from the top down. nsək̓ʷtílp. On the other side, across the room. tx̌ilp. Undetermined color. txʷsqʷílpəm. To break boughs (to put under oneself). tkʔílpəm. To wet the bed. Sp √‑elp covering, floor; Cr ilup foundation; Sh -il̕ep foundation; Li -ílap / -lap floor.

ilpnt   [íləpənt] Morph: ilpnt. Etym: √lpnt. elephant.

ilps   [ilps] Morph: ilps. Variant: alps; lps; alp; ílaʔps. neck. ntx̌ʷilps. The center of the neck. nk̓milps. The top front part of neck. tk̓milps. The area below the back of the neck. tx̌ilps. Gray horse. kyaʔílpsəm. Wag the tail. nkʷitílps. Mallard. Sp √‑elps (‑elpst) neck, back of neck; Cr elps -ilps throat of person, back of animal's neck; Sh -el̕pa (back of) neck; Th epsém neck.

ilpstxn   [ílpstxən] Morph: ilpstxn. (a person's) lap. stk̓mílpstxən. Lap. kt̓ək̓ʷt̓k̓ʷílpstxnəm. To lie on a person's lap. See: ilps; xn.

ils   [ils] Morph: ils. Variant: als; ls; ílaʔs; lils. Etym: ls. feel(ing); thought; company. naʔc̓ntíls. To think a certain way; to be offended. ṇc̓q̓əmníls. To give a false hope. tkəcxíls. To be in pain. nkaʔkaʔsmíls. To have bad feelings. k̓ək̓tíls. To come close to one's mind. nk̓əwˑpíls. To be lonesome. nƛ̓əlˑíls. To feel like dying. mtils. To want to sit. nmaʔɬíls. To get over ill feelings. nəx̌ʷnəx̌ʷíls. To want a wife; to be thinking about a mate. nqləw̓míls. To want to make money. qmílsəm. To put one's mind at ease. q̓asəspílsm. To take a long time. sənq̓aʔíls. Concern. nq̓aʔíls. Project. nq̓aʔílsm. To bother with s.t. qʷaʔíls. To have plenty, enough. nstils. To think. təltílsm. To think little of s.o. ntils. To think. ntkʷils. To keep company with s.o. ntkʷílsəm. To keep s.o. company. nxʷtxʷtíls. To have a bad temper. xʷaʔtíls. To be ungrateful. ṇx̌əlwiʔíls. To want a man. niltíls. To want to run away, get out of s.t. ʕanqíls. To be satisfied. ʔaɬníls. To want to eat. nʔayx̌ʷtíls. To get tired. ʔayx̌ʷtíls. Be tired. Sp √-els (-el̕s) (-el) (-el̕) front, feeling; Cr –il̕s s+nukʷ+n+xʷc+xʷc̓+m–íl̕s compassion; Sh -eləs chest, character, floor; things.

ilstn   [ilstṇ] Morph: ilstn. Morph: probably segmentable ilst+n. weapon. kɬnəx̌cílstən. To have weapons.

ilsxn   [ílsxən] Morph: ilsxn. forehead; hair. kɬcaʔílsxn. To punch s.o. on the forehead. c̓xʷílsxntm. To pour water on the forehead; to baptize. sp̓ílsxnəm. To hit s.o. on forehead. kɬsp̓p̓il̕sxn̓. To get hit on the forehead. qaʕílsxn̓əm. To cut s.o.'s hair. qaʕilsxəncút. To cut one's own hair. kɬtaʔpílsxn. Dirty hair. See Sp s-čɬ-č̕mésšn̓ forehead. See: ls; xn.

ilt   [ilt] Morph: ilt. Variant: il̕t; ílaʔt; lt. 1 • child(ren). scunstílt. Child training. cxʷíltəm. To make over a baby. c̓x̌ʷíltəm. To lecture a child. k̓ʷəl̕l̕ílt. To have a baby. skəlkʷtílt. Child fathered by a man married to another woman. səxʷɬc̓iltəm. Child whipper. kɬc̓iltṇ. Child whipping instrument. sɬx̌milt. An in-law from one's child. ɬəɬx̌ʷəm̓xílt. Child entering puberty. ƛ̓əllílt. Dead child. sp̓aʔxʷənkílt. Sun child. qaʔmílt. To nurse a baby. cq̓aʔlílt. Ailing child. sc̓wanáytm q̓axnílts. Mountain ladyslipper. tər̓qmíltm. To bounce a child. st̓aʔk̓əmxílts. Daughter. t̓k̓ʷíltəm. To deliver a baby. sxaʔtílt. First child. ux̌tílt. Baby. syaʔlílt. Widowed mother-in-law. yltilt. Run-away child. ʔamníltm. To feed the children. k̓amtílt. A child stays there. stʔawtílt. Youngest child.

2 • food; berry. ʔamníltəm. To give a potlatch. Sp √‑elt (‑el̕) stomach, inside of body, child; Cr ilt, -elt, ált, il̕t offspring, child; Sh -elt, -il̕t, il̕e child, offspring, young, egg; Th íl̕t child; il̕eh, íl̕e offspring obj. pity; Li -alt, -lət, -il̕t child, offspring; human being.

iltn   [iltṇ] Morph: iltn. stomach, food, eat, meat. p̓iʔqíltən. Cooked food. ksq̓míltṇ. To be hungry. tx̌əw̓íltnəm. To dry meat. sənx̌w̓íltənsəlx. Meat drying place. Sp √-elt (-el̕) stomach, inside of body, child; Sh -eltn throat (?).

ilx 1   [ilx] Morph: ilx. Variant: ílaʔx; lx; aʕlx; ilx1; lílaʔx; lilx. motion; progress toward s.t. nk̓əwílx. To go upstream. sk̓əy̓ílx. It’s turning fall. k̓ʷəlk̓ʷəlkílx. To be rolling around. kḷkʷílxəm. To get away from s.t. ḷkʷilx. To remove s.t. ɬəq̓q̓əʔílx. To fall face down. ɬq̓ilx. One goes to bed. nɬxʷtl̕ílx. Gone into the bushes. pqʷilxm. To check up on s.o., to visit s.o., to find out about s.o. p̓əlp̓əlk̓ílx. Toss and turn (unable to sleep). sx̌ʷtilx. To go down. t̓əxʷtílˑx. To fly around. nwislx. To go up, ascend. xiʔwílx. To pass by. xʷt̓íˑˑlx. To wake up. x̌əssmílx. (Health) improves. cx̌əw̓x̌w̓ílx. To be in a bind. ixʷílxqnəm. Horn shedding. ɬyaʕmílx. To gather again. ʔatxílx. To go to sleep. ʔawsɬq̓ílx. To go to bed. kəʔwílx. To go out into the lake or river.

ilx 2   [ilx] Morph: ilx. noise. lx̌ʷəlx̌ʷilx. To make banging around noise. ssw̓ilx. Whisper.

ilx 3   [ilx] Morph: ilx. ? spaʔpaʔsílx. Sorrow. uʔxʷílxqən. The biggest buck (to shoot a uʔxʷílxqən brings bad luck). qlilx. Lean-to. sk̓aʔwílxaʔx. Garden snake. sk̓əwk̓awílx. Snakes. nxəƛ̓mílx. In one place.

ilxqn   [ílxqən] Morph: ilxqn. ? uʔxʷílxqən. The biggest buck. See: ilx; qn.

ilxʷ   [ilxʷ] Morph: ilxʷ. Variant: alxʷ; lxʷ; aʕlxʷ. coat, body covering. clkstilxʷ. Five colors; five coats; five materials; five hides. cq̓ʔilxʷ. Pinto, calico. c̓aʔknilxʷ. Any color. k̓iʔlílxʷ. Tree bark. ḷmílxʷəlx. Another tribe. nək̓ʷcwílxʷtən. One group of people. snqsilxʷ. Relative. sp̓ílxʷəm. To hit on the shoulder. kɬsəwpílxʷ. To itch in the back. tkɬmilxʷ. Woman, wife. kɬtxilxʷtn. Curry comb (for horse). txilxʷtn. Brush. yaʕɬcwílxʷtən. All over the world. Sp √‑elxʷ sheet, page, blanket; see Sh -ilx body; Th él̕xʷ, éyxʷ animal ?; Li -ilx, -ləx body.

il̕lx   [il̕lx] Morph: il̕lx. Variant: lilx; ilx1; ílaʔx; lx; aʕlx. Gram: plural reference (northern form) motion; progress. t̓əxʷtíl̕lx. Several fly. ntkɬil̕lx. Several get to the bottom. ṇɬxʷtíl̕lxəlx. Several go in the swamp. səx̌ʷtíl̕lx. Several go downhill.

il̕t   [il̕t] Morph: il̕t. Variant: ilt; ílaʔt; lt. child; offspring. sɬəɬw̓ílt Niece; nephew. yaʕpqn̓íl̕t. Lots of children.

íɬaʔp   [íɬaʔp] Morph: íɬaʔp. Variant: iɬp; aɬp; ɬp; iʔɬp. plant, bush. ccq̓íɬaʔp. Young Douglas fir. c̓c̓kʷkʷíɬaʔp. Mountain ash. n̓q̓n̓q̓tíɬaʔp. Pasture wormwood; western sage. ppaʕ̓paʕ̓íɬaʔp. Rabbitbrush.

íɬaʔxʷ   [íɬaʔxʷ] Morph: íɬaʔxʷ. Variant: áɬaʔxʷ; iɬxʷ; aɬxʷ; aʕɬxʷ; ɬxʷ2. house. csc̓ər̓síɬaʔxʷ. Fisher's little house. sc̓ərsíɬaʔxʷ. Oroville (AMcG). tk̓k̓əmqsíɬaʔxʷ. A little house all by itself. k̓ʷk̓ʷim̓íɬaʔxʷ. A little house. n̓qsíɬaʔxʷ. Outhouse. qəqcíɬaʔxʷ. Little log house. səsm̓ʔíɬaʔxʷ. Outhouse.

íɬc̓aʔ   [íɬc̓aʔ] Morph: íɬc̓aʔ. Variant: aɬc̓aʔ; ɬc̓aʔ; aʕɬc̓aʔ. single enclosure; body; belly. ckʷíɬc̓aʔm. Take a breath. ckʷíɬc̓aʔm. Breathe one'a last breath. ckʷíɬc̓aʔ. Dragged s.t. cəcm̓íɬc̓aʔ. Little body. nccn̓píɬc̓aʔ. Sweathouse hum. nc̓aʔxʷíɬc̓aʔm. Hot cake (lit. pour dough on). kt̓íɬc̓aʔ. Rip the clothes one's body. kaʕ̓íɬc̓aʔ. Laugh at someone. k̓ʷtíɬc̓aʔ. Shrunken body. ḷqíɬc̓aʔ. To pluck feathers. nɬx̌ʷíɬc̓aʔ. The hollow of anything. ƛ̓líɬc̓aʔ. Paralized. mlk̓ʷíɬc̓aʔ. A whole carcass. nqsíɬc̓aʔ. One room. n̓qsíɬc̓aʔ. One little room. snixʷtíɬc̓aʔ. Insides. qəcpíɬc̓aʔ. Shrunken side of the body. qəlíɬc̓aʔ. Raw meat. sənqpíɬc̓aʔtṇ. Cupboard. saʔxíɬc̓aʔ. Die, the warmth leaves the body. ntəlkʷíɬc̓aʔ. Take out the insides. styíɬc̓aʔ. Moose, stag, elk. ṇxʷaʔxʷʔƛ̓íɬc̓aʔ. A body is picking up. nitkʷíɬc̓aʔ. Rotten inside. snyxʷtíɬc̓aʔ. A room below; the insides. ccnpíɬc̓aʔ. Humming. nccən̓píɬc̓aʔ. To hum. Sp √‑éɬc̓eʔ inside of body, animal; Sh -eɬc̓e inside, meat, game, character; Th eɬc̓iʔ, áɬc̓iʔ, éɬc̓iʔ, ɬc̓iʔ body, carcass, side (of body)...; Li -aɬc̓aʔ, -ɬc̓aʔ meat, inside of body; mind, toughts.

iɬmlx   [íɬməlx] Morph: iɬmlx. Variant: aɬmlx; ɬmlx; aʕɬml̕x. tree, bush, plant. c̓kʷəkʷíɬml̕x. Blue elderberry. kc̓amliʔsíɬmil̕x. Red twinberry. sc̓ərsíɬməlx, sc̓ərsíɬml̕x. (Tall) Oregon grape bushes. stkəməxstíɬml̕x. Black twinberry. skʷəl̕síɬməl̕x. Kinnikinnick. skʷəkʷəl̕síɬməl̕x, skʷəkʷəl̕kʷəl̕síɬməl̕x. False box. k̓ʷəc̓k̓ʷc̓íɬməlx. Strong tree. nɬq̓íɬməlx. Quilchena. ɬɬq̓íɬm̓lx. Rice (town). sɬqʷiɬm̓lx. Place name. smən̓xʷíɬml̕x. Wild tobacco. pəkɬn̓íɬml̕x. Bitter cherry. pəlpəlqníɬml̕x. Thimbleberry. spuʔsíɬml̕x. Wild ginger. ktəptəpsíɬml̕x. Cascarra. stətq̓m̓íɬml̕x. Wild strawberry. t̓ət̓q̓íɬməl̕x. Saskatoon, or serviceberry; also unidentified bush. st̓əxɬqíɬməl̕x. Mountain huckleberry. wusxəníɬəml̕x. Saskatoon or serviceberry (tall variety). x̌siɬml̕x. Wild gooseberry.

iɬn   [iɬn] Morph: iɬn. information, request. sxʷknxtiɬn. Helper. kʷəlstíɬən. To send an invitation or request. qʷəlqʷəltíɬən. To talk to people. suɬtíɬən. To ask.

iɬp   [iɬp] Morph: iɬp. Variant: aɬp; ɬp; iʔɬp; íɬaʔp. 1 • plant, bush. cq̓iɬp. Douglas fir. c̓kʷkʷiɬp. Blue elderberry. sc̓rsiɬp. Tall Oregon grape. skʷəkʷʔíɬp, skʷəkʷəw̓íɬp. Rose bush; wild rose. səɬqíɬp. Little síyaʔ bushes; saskatoon or serviceberry. smukʷaʔxníɬp. Balsamroot. mxiɬp. Cedar. mxʷiɬp. Cedar boughs. məl̕məl̕tíɬp, m̓əl̕m̓əl̕tíɬp. Trembling aspen. n̓q̓n̓q̓tíɬaʔp. Pasture wormwood; western sage. pəkɬn̓íɬp. Bitter cherry. spəkʷmíɬp. Rocky Mountain maple. spəpƛ̓əm̓íɬp. Flat-topped spiraea. (s)q̓p̓xʷíɬp. Hazelnut; bastard toadflax. sqiʔsíɬp. Giant hyssop. q̓əp̓xʷíɬp. Thornberry bush. stəkcxʷíɬp, stəktəkcxʷíɬp. Red-osier dogwood; red willow. stəq̓m̓íɬp. Wild strawberry. tq̓əmtq̓əmíɬp. Wild strawberry. (s)t̓əkʷlíʔɬp. Grand fir. t̓l̕t̓l̕tiɬp. Smooth sumac. t̓əst̓əsíɬp. Spruce. sxʷaxʷʔnkíɬp. Thorn bush. x̌əx̌ʔíɬp. Small thorn bush.sx̌ʷsmiɬp. sx̌ʷəsmíɬp. Soapberry.

2 • ? ck̓iɬp. Rib. ck̓ck̓iɬp. Ribs. Sp √‑eɬp plant, foliage, vine; Cr eɬp bush, plant; Sh -eɬp tree, bush, plant; par excellence; Th eɬp, áɬp plant; Li -áɬp / -ɬəp tree, bush, plant.

iɬxn   [íɬxən] Morph: iɬxn. Etym: ɬxn. leg. nckʷcəkʷkʷíɬxən. Leg cramps. səncəkʷcəkʷkʷíɬxən. She had cramps. ncəkʷcəkʷíɬxən. Cramps in muscles. See: xn.

iɬxʷ   [iɬxʷ] Morph: iɬxʷ. Variant: aɬxʷ; aʕɬxʷ; áɬaʔxʷ; íɬaʔxʷ; ɬxʷ2. house. kckʷkʷniɬxʷ. To drag s.t. out of the house. Morph: n of niɬxʷ not clear. nc̓uʔsíɬxʷtn. Wash rag. nk̓mən̓kíɬxʷ. Ceiling. ṇk̓əmkn̓íɬxʷ. Ceiling. sknəqsíɬxʷm. Neighbor. nqsiɬxʷ. A room; a house. sp̓əc̓níɬxʷ. Tipi; canvas house. qʷyíɬxʷəm. To put a roof on a house. sənq̓əltíɬxʷtṇ. Hospital. səlxʷaʔíɬxʷ. Large house. ntəpsíɬxʷtən. Curtain. st̓qiɬxʷ. House of fir boughs. silmxʷíɬxʷ. The boss's house. k̓əɬuxsíɬxʷ. Houses side by side. ṇxənsiɬxʷtṇ. Window. xʷk̓ʷíɬxʷəm. To clean the house. sx̌liɬxʷ. Frame house. sʕaɬíɬxʷ. Oroville (RA). k̓ask̓ʷəlkn̓íɬxʷ. To throw s.t. or s.o. out of the house. ʔasəlíɬxʷ. Two houses. Sp √‑eɬxʷ (‑xʷ) skin, hide, house; Cm ‑aɬxʷ; Cr iɬxʷ -iɬxʷ (-ɬxʷ) house; Sh -eɬxʷ lodging; Th eɬxʷ, aɬxʷ house; Li -áɬxʷ, -ɬəxʷ house; place where s.t. happens, where s.t. is.

^-im1   [im] Morph: -im. suffixal component of nominalized future (weak, suffix-stressed) forms (ks-...+transitivizer-m). These forms are conjugated with the i- set of person markers.

1 • with +st. asqilxʷ nixʷ ilíʔ akstkxnəmstím. Put your Indianness along with it. cəm̓ t̓i lut kʷ iksk̓əwpstím. I won't have finished to say what Iʼm saying... ixíʔ kʷu aksƛ̓aʔɬtím ikɬənqəqpáqstxən. Get it for me to put under my hip. ikskswyítm ikswiʔstím iʔ púpaʔkʷtət. I'm going to do my best to finish our book.

2 • with ɬt. p iksm̓ay̓ɬtím. I'm going to tell you about ... way̓ ixíʔ kʷ ikɬm̓ay̓ɬtím ʕapnáʔ. Now I'll tell you again. way̓ kʷu asm̓ay̓ɬtím, kʷu asm̓ay̓ɬtím ixíʔ. Tell me about it, tell me about it. Gram: variant (?) of kʷu aksm̓ay̓ɬtím lut kʷu akspəƛ̓ɬtím ink̓əɬʕalmín Don't flatten my fence. lut kʷu akst̓ak̓ʷɬtím. Don't pay me in small installments. lut kʷu aksycəɬtím istətəm̓tím̓ Don't wrinkle my clothes. See: ks-.

-im2   [im] Morph: -im. Variant: -m10. first person plural subject with weak (suffix-stressed) transitive stems.

1 • with +nt. way̓ ik̓líʔ kʷu sx̌ʷtilx mi ƛ̓xʷəntíməlx yayʕát. We'll go down there and kill them all. xʷaʔntím. We'll pick it up. ɬ ksq̓əy̓ntím iʔ nqílxʷcntət If we (learn how to) write our language. ʔamtím. We fed him.

2 • with +st. mi xʷəs wiʔstím. We'll be done faster.

-im3   [im] Morph: -im. Variant: -m9. suffix that marks a passive subject--an indefinite agent acting on a subject patient. t̓k̓ʷəntím sənk̓líp kɬilmíxʷəm. Coyote was given the responsibility to be chief or leader. ɬw̓ntím t n̓ín̓k̓məns. He got poked by his knife. itíʔ t̓uxʷt iʔ yutlxʷ uɬ kəm̓ɬtím iʔ stk̓ʷƛ̓k̓ʷƛ̓ústəns Then Raven flew by and he took his eyes. Lit: his eyes were taken uɬ ɬíʔ ksƛ̓əxʷəntíməlx. And he was going to kill them all. Lit: they were going to be killed

-im4   [im] Morph: -im. Variant: ^-m12. in transitive constructions (weak stems) -m in combination with kʷu translates as "(s)he / they ... us".

1 • with +nt. kʷu kəm̓əntím. They took us. kʷu ƛ̓xʷəntím. They will kill us. itlíʔ kʷu ɬə k̓əɬtr̓ntím. That's where we descend from. Lit: they unraveled us kʷu ʔamtím. He fed us.

2 • with +ɬt. kʷu lək̓ɬtím. They forbade us. kʷu t̓ək̓ʷɬtim. He charged us.

ímc̓aʔ   [ímc̓aʔ] Morph: ímc̓aʔ. suffix sequence in the following form: snllxímc̓aʔ. Slime; fish scales. See: c̓aʔ.

+imn   [ímən] Morph: +imn. Variant: +amn; +aʕmn. derivational suffix with habitual import: to do s.t. often; to be in a state often; to like to do s.t. captkʷlímən. He likes to tell stories. caʕʷlxímən. One who likes to bathe, bathes often. c̓aʔqʷqʷmímən. He's a cry baby. k̓aʕmímən. He's a church goer. kʷəlstnímən. He sweat bathes often, likes to sweat. ṇk̓ʷaʔlsímən. He's always cranky. ɬəɬt̓mímən. He's a fisherman. məl̕tímən. He likes to visit. mən̓xʷímən. He likes to smoke. m̓aymímən. He likes to spread gossip. pəx̌əmímən. He likes to hunt, is a hunter. q̓ʷluʔmímən. He likes to pick berries. saʔstímən. He likes to drink. saʔsaʔstímnəlx. They like to drink. xʷəstímən. He likes to walk. x̌əc̓mímən. He's a gambler. ʔaɬnímən. He likes to eat. k̓amtuʔsímən. He likes to ride. ʔatxímən. He's always sleepy.

imxʷ   [imxʷ] Morph: imxʷ. Variant: simxʷ. nipple. sk̓əmsímxʷ. Nipple, teat. Sp √‑emxʷ front, chest, breast.

in-1   [in] Morph: in-. Variant: i-2. first person of the in- paradigm, my. incəckʷm̓in̓ My little wagon. incaʔcʔíliʔs. My brothers. inkuʔuwáp. My horses. ink̓ʷúl̕mən. My tool. inlʔíw. My father. inqʷəlqʷíltn. My language. inˑiʕá. My spear.

-in2   [in] Morph: -in. Variant: -n5. first person singular transitive marker -in paradigm.

1 • with -nt. ckʷəntín. I pulled it. cməntín. I covered up (s.t to eat) with snow. kc̓kəntínəlx. I've counted them. cc̓q̓stin. I was hitting it. ɬəp̓əntín. I made a straight mark. tapəntín. I got it dirty. trəntín. I unraveled it. kaʕxʷəntín. I hollered at him. way̓ k̓ɬəqʷəntín. I checked both ways. t̓uʔkəntín. I snapped it. x̌əpəntín. I stacked it (paper, sticks). x̌aʔntsín. I stop you in speaking. ksləxʷəntín. I hit it.

2 • with -st. ulpstín. I made it burn.

3 • with ɬt. m̓ay̓ɬtsín. I'll tell you.

ína   [ína] Morph: ína. Variant: ínaʔ; ánaʔ; naʔ; . ear (?) snʕacínas x̌áʕx̌aʕ. Long flowered mertensia. tq̓c̓q̓c̓pínas iʔ snína. Orange honeysuckle; blue clematis.

ínaʔ   [ínaʔ] Morph: ínaʔ. Variant: ína; ánaʔ; naʔ; áʕnaʔ. ear; surface. kckʷckʷínaʔ. To pull one's ears. kcmínaʔm. To cover s.t. ṇc̓əwqínaʔ. To pull s.t. out of the ear. ṇc̓aʔrínaʔ. Ear ache. (t)kmkməxstínaʔ. Round leafed trillium. tk̓əlxʷínaʔ. Dark. k̓əlxʷínaʔ. Late evening. ṇk̓sínaʔm. To get angry at what one says. sənk̓ʔínaʔ. Pillow. ckməɬqínaʔ. To cave in on one. (s)tk̓ʷk̓ʷxʷnʔínaʔ. Yellow mouse-ear mustard. k̓ʷk̓ʷyínaʔ. Very little, a little. k̓ʷək̓ʷínaʔcn. A few words. kɬəq̓əɬq̓ínaʔ. Wide ears. kɬt̓ínaʔ. Hear, understand. k̓əɬt̓pmínaʔ. Jumped on s.t. or s.o. kɬxʷpínaʔ To hang s.t. on top of another; to put a cover on s.t. nɬaʔmínaʔ. Place name. ckəmɬɬínaʔ. Fall, cave in on s.o. smətkʷl̕ínaʔ. Unidentified plant. nmipínaʔm. Understanding s.t. nmiʔínaʔm. Understand. nmiyínaʔ. Understand. kmypínaʔ. Find out the truth. kpəkʷkʷínaʔ. To throw s.t. on the roof. kpaʔɬínaʔ. Get splashed on. npaʔpaʔqínaʔ. Gray hair on the temples. stqəc̓qəc̓pínaʔ. Braids. tqəlqalutínaʔ. Bicycle. tq̓tínaʔ. Be in the rain. tqʷəlqʷəltínaʔ. To insult s.o. sq̓ʷq̓ʷxʷmínaʔ. Little bouncy bird (sp). nsəl̕l̕ínaʔ. Confused. nsw̓ínaʔm. To whisper. ksəx̌ʷpínaʔ. S.t. runs down a surface. tkʷʔínaʔ. Run into s.t. or s.o. ktpínaʔtən. Sheet-like cover. ktpínaʔ. Cover s.t. ntaʔtaʔpínaʔ. Dirty ears; five o'clock shadow. staʔmínaʔ. There is no more snow. kt̓k̓ʷínaʔ. Put s.t. on top; to put a price on s.t. nt̓yt̓yínaʔ. One who doesn't mind. kul̕ínaʔ. Cover. ckuʔl̕ínaʔ. Cover. kull̕ínaʔ. Cover s.t. nunxʷínaʔm. Believe. xy̓ínaʔ. Accept, give in, consent. xəʔínam. To consent. txʷyínaʔ. Go over s.t. sxʷyínaʔ. Prickly pear cactus. sxʷxʷʔínaʔ. Matted saxifrage. x̌əlínaʔ. Food cache. ksx̌əlpínaʔ. Daylight. x̌aʕpínaʔ. To cool off. kylxʷínaʔ. Wrapped in s.t. kyuyuwínaʔ. Good hearing. ktaʔqínaʔ. To type. Sp √‑éneʔ ear, surface; Cr ineʔ, aneʔ, eneʔ, eˑniʔ, íneʔ ear; over, on top; Sh -ene side, ear; Th en̓ih, én̓i ear, side of head...; Li -anaʔ ear.

ínaʔk   [ínaʔk] Morph: ínaʔk. Variant: ink; an̓k; nk; n̓k. inside. nppqínaʔk. Place name. Lit: small white area on sidehill

incá   [incá] Morph: in+cá. Etym: √nc. I. náx̌əmɬ incá lut t̓ wíkən. But I haven't seen it. km̓a incá, km̓a incá ixíʔ iswíkəm. Me neither, I haven't seen it myself. way̓ cúntsən ixíʔ incá incá lut t̓ wíkən. I told you, I myself didn't see it. lut km̓a incá ism̓aʔm̓áy̓, ixíʔ inxaxʔít, itlíʔ kiʔ iscmipnwíɬən. These are not my stories, they are my ancestors', that's who I learned them from. iwá ṇqʷən̓qʷən̓tmínn, incá iʔ kən ksqʷən̓qʷán̓taʔx. Even if I get hard up, it is I who would be hard up. mypnús t incá kʷ iskʷúlstəm. He'll know I sent you. ixíʔ incá ikstíxʷəm. I am the one who is going to take that. uɬ lut kʷu t̓ aksʔax̌líkstəm, t incá way̓ cmistín k̓a ʔkín kʷu ɬə ksxʷuys. You don't have to guide me, I know where we are going.

incá kn   [incá kṇ] Morph: in+cá kn. Etym: √nc. I. incá kən kən síyaʔ. I am saskatoon berry. incá kən ɬaʔ kɬlʔiw. That̓s my father. taɬt k̓im t̓i way̓ incákən kən cxʷəlxʷált naʔɬ ilín. There's just me alive, and Ellen. uɬ incá kən iʔ tíltəlxʷt, uɬ aɬíʔ put ksiyúps aɬíʔ mi cmistín laʔkín kən ksƛ̓əqmíxaʔx. My job is the hardest, because there have to be plant tops before I know where to dig. way̓ incá kən ɬaʔ kɬcawt. I have done that. sc̓x̌ilx uɬ incá kən ksxaʔtəmscútaʔx. That's why I wanted to go first. incá kən kən ʔayx̌ʷt. (With) me, I got tired. incá kən tkɬmilxʷ, lut t̓ əcylmíxʷəmstsəlx iʔ tkɬmilxʷ. I am a woman, they never make a woman boss. incá kən wiʔstáxʷɬqəm, huy ɬ t anwí. I am done harvesting, now it's your turn. incá kən kʷu c̓ʕac̓stxʷ. You watch me. See: incá.

incám   Morph: in+cá+m. Gram: unclear variant of incá. I. incám kən cyríwaʔxən, way̓ incá iʔ kən k̓əɬkyxʷút I have show shoes on and I'll go the lower route.

ink   [ink] Morph: ink. Variant: an̓k; nk; n̓k; ínaʔk. 1 • belly, stomack, innards. ncaʔxʷínk. Innards are tired. k̓əɬcaʔxʷínk. Stomach muscles are tired. ṇc̓aʔr̓ínk. Diarrhea. ṇk̓ʷəp̓k̓ʷúp̓əp̓ənk. Stomach cramps. mq̓ink. A full belly. ptk̓ínkən. To gut, take out the insides. paʔpaʔsínkəm. To feel bad. p̓sínkəm. To fast. sqʷəlcnínk. Belly. sq̓ʷaʔstínk. To produce magic; Coyote's trick. x̌mínk. To like or want. nx̌əw̓ín̓k. Something dry inside. yaʕyaʕínk. To tickle the belly.

2 • (side)hill; side. ncuʔlínk. Cat face on a tree; fire burns on one side of a tree. (sə)nk̓mink. Wall. ṇɬaʔmínk. Next to the wall. k̓əɬqcəlxínk. To run on the side hill. nuxʷuxʷínk. To hang down. k̓əɬx̌sínk. Side hill. k̓əɬʔaksuxínk. To stand on the side hill.

3 • weapon. ckʷink. Bow. k̓ʷəl̕ckʷín̓k. To make a bow. kɬaʔpín̓k. Close shooting. yəʕʷyəʕʷínk, kyuyuwínk, kyuyəʕʷínk. Strong bow and arrow. Sp √‑enč stomach, wall; Sh -enk belly; curved surface; Th ene(ʔ)k belly; Li {-an̓ak, -an̓k, -ank belly, inside, hillside; -in̓ak, -in̓k, -inak gun.

inmascúɬm   [inmascúɬm] Morph: inma+s+cúɬ+m. Etym: √cɬ. inmascúɬm. inmascúɬm.

ip1   [ip] Morph: ip. Variant: ap; p. 1 • egg; oval object; rope; tree. ʔaslíp. Two eggs, trees, lines... nəqsíp. One egg/tree... clkstíp. Five eggs, trees... kaʔɬlíp. Three eggs, ropes. k̓ʷnxíp. A few eggs. k̓ʷnxíp. How many trees? kkɣip. Thin (e.g. rope). nkt̓íp. To cut boards.

2 • base; bottom end. kt̓íˑpəm. To cut at the base. ṇc̓əwqíp. To uproot s.t. sənk̓l̕íp. Coyote. splip. One's hind end. sʕ̓ʷx̌ʷip, sʕ̓ax̌ʷíp. Roots. ʔuckl̕ípəm. To run down (the hill). nxlíp. To chop s.t. close to the ground.

3 • door. k̓ɬəncaʔípəm. To knock on the door. k̓ɬənk̓míp. Door. k̓ɬənk̓ahk̓ʷíp, k̓ɬənk̓əxʷxʷk̓ʷíp. To open the door. k̓ɬənk̓aʔtíp. Right at the door. k̓ʷƛ̓ƛ̓ip. To open the door. q̓əʔíp. Stuck on the door. k̓ɬənq̓ʔíp. A sign on the door. k̓ɬənq̓aʔíp. The door is stuck. k̓ɬənk̓ʷƛ̓íp. To open something covered. k̓ɬənʔaɬxʷíp. To enter an opening. nk̓əlmxʷmíp. Shell. nlk̓ip. To wrap s.t. around s.t. k̓ɬənɬaʔíp. To get right close to s.t. nmaʔíp. To tell on s.o. Gram: figurative extension obscure k̓ɬənpn̓íp. A bent nail. nqəl̕qəl̕utíp. To step on arrows. nsəsl̕íp. To get confused. nsl̕ip. To be lost somewhere. tqip. A dam. tayxʷn̓íp. To run out of time. k̓ɬənxn̓xn̓íp. Shutters. k̓ɬənxn̓ip. To shut the door. cyx̌ípəm. To drag s.t. yʔx̌ípəm. To slide around (e.g. a baby not yet walking) on one's bottom. k̓ɬənx̌p̓íp. To be stitched. ʕ̓aƛ̓íp. To chew a tree down. k̓ɬənʕ̓ʷalíp. To close a door. ʔawtíp. To follow s.o. kɬípcən. Lower lip down. Sp -ep (-epst) foot, bottom, below; Sh -ep / -up bottom, behind; arrive(d) into a state.

-ip2   [ip] Morph: -ip. Variant: -p5. second person plural transitive subject, -in paradigm. way̓ cmystip. You all know. ʔamtíp. You (pl) fed him. kʷu ʔamtíp. You(pl) fed us.

ípaʔɬxn   [ípaʔɬxən] Morph: ípaʔɬxn. Variant: ipɬxn; ápaʔɬxn. heel. cc̓əmc̓mípaʔɬxən. Sharp heeled shoes. sx̌əx̌sx̌sípaʔɬxən. Pretty heels.

ípaʔs   [ípaʔs] Morph: ípaʔs. Variant: ips; paʔs. chin. k̓əɬcʔípaʔsm. To hit one on the chin. səq̓lípaʔs. Neckerchief. k̓əɬsp̓ípaʔs. To club s.o. on the chin. Sp k̓ʷiʔépeʔst chin; č̕ɬ-cuʔ-épeʔs-n-t-m he was punched under his chin; Cm k̓ɬk̓mápas chin, side of jaw; Sh -epeʔs-qn chin.

ípaʔst   [ípaʔst] Morph: ípaʔst. Man's name. p̓sƛ̓ípaʔst. Lit: big balls xəlkípaʔst. Place name. Lit: go around a rock Cm nmlk̓ʷápaʔst stud horse; See Cr s+qʷá·yapaʔ rose hip. See: ípuʔst.

íplaʔ   [íplaʔ] Morph: íplaʔ. Variant: áʕplaʔ; plaʔ. handle. sxʷkc̓x̌ʷíplaʔm. The judge. kc̓x̌ʷíplaʔ. To judge. tkʷəlstíplaʔ. To send for s.o. ɬx̌ʷíplaʔ. Falls (Fall) Creek. kƛ̓aʔpəlʔáɬq. Make trouble. kƛ̓aʔíplaʔ. To cause problems. kƛ̓iʔíplaʔm. Get someone in trouble. kməlx̌aʔíplaʔm. To lie about s.t. or s.o. skmiʔíplaʔ. Meaning. skmaʔíplaʔ. Explanation. stqʷəlqʷəltíplaʔ. Agreement. ksl̕íplaʔ. To disappear. kt̓t̓píplaʔ. The common pin. tx̌ʔəníplaʔ. To stop s.o. kilmxʷíplaʔ. To boss around. kʕacʕaccíplaʔ. To tie something on a stick. Sp √‑épleʔ (‑epɬ) knob, handle; Cr ipleʔ, peleʔ, ápalaʔ, ípeleʔ, ípleʔ attachment, handle, connection; Sh -ipleʔ handle; Th ípleʔ handle.

ipɬxn   [ípɬxən] Morph: ipɬxn. Variant: ápaʔɬxn. heel; hoof. c̓əlc̓lípɬxən. Spurs. nwsustípɬxən. Boots.

ípnaʔ   [ípnaʔ] Morph: ípnaʔ. ? nc̓əspípnaʔ. Cigarette butt. snɬsípnaʔm. To smoke cigars. Sh -epne jaw.

ips   [ips] Morph: ips. loop; hoop; neck. scənkt̓íps. Things one cuts. sq̓lips, sq̓l̕ips. Handkerchief; medallion. k̓əɬnyrk̓ʷíps. Hoop. sk̓asl̕íps. Two (women). ck̓liʔxʔíps. On this side. k̓aɬʔíps. On that side. Sh -eps back of neck; Th aps, eps neck.

ípuʔst   [ípuʔst] Morph: ípuʔst. Variant: áʔpust. step. kɬyípuʔst. Place name. laʔkʷtípuʔstxnəm. One strides. Ques: iʔpust or ípuʔst

ípuʔstxn   [ípuʔstxən] Morph: ípuʔstxn. step, stride. laʔkʷtípuʔstxnəm. One strides. nɬqʷípuʔstxən. Loin cloths. ʔaslípuʔstxən. Two steps. kaʔɬípuʔstxən. Three steps. nəqsíʔpustxən. One jump. kaʔɬəlípuʔstxən. Jump three times. qəccəlxíʔpustxən. Stumble. See Sh -epstx̌n upper arm, wing. See: ípuʔst; xn.

-is   [is] Morph: -is. Variant: -s14. third person singular transitive subject (weak stems).

1 • with +nt. c̓əx̌ʷc̓əx̌ʷntís. They told him. ƛ̓aʔƛ̓aʔntís. He searched for it. kɬpkʷntísəlx. They lay many down. sl̕əntísəlx. They twisted them. t̓ləntís. He tore it. utəntís. He put it down. ʔamtsís. He's feeding you.

2 • with +ɬt. cm̓ay̓ɬtísəlx. They told him about it. ksx̌əsɬtsís. He makes your feelings better. kʷu tapəɬtís. He got my X dirty.

ísaʔxn   [ísaʔxən] Morph: ísaʔxn. Variant: isxn; sxn; isx; sxn̓; sx; aʕsxn. small round object. cəcm̓ísaʔxən. Small rocks. See: xn.

ísk̓iʔt   [ísk̓iʔt] Morph: ísk̓iʔ. Variant: ísk̓it. pharynx; throat. nckʷísk̓itəm. To breathe with pain, groan. c̓əspísk̓iʔt. To be out of breath. ɬaʔxʷísk̓iʔt. To rest. xaʔlísk̓it. To be on the edge of death. nyq̓ísk̓itəm. To let a big grunt. nyq̓iq̓ísk̓iʔtəm. To groan. Cm ɬxʷ‑ask̓it to take a deep breath, catch one’s breath; Cr isč̕ey̓t pharynx; Sh -esk̓e: x-slp-ésk̓e be excited, nervous (slep excited); Th esk̓iʔ, sk̓iʔ song, singing, ritual.

islp̓   [ísəlp̓] Morph: islp̓. Variant: slp̓. firewood. kaʔmísəlp̓əm. To carry wood. k̓alk̓ʷsíslp̓tn. Log roller; fire poker. spaʔlísl̕p̓. Smoke from a house fire. wy̓sp̓nislp̓m. Finish piling wood. q̓aʔlqʷsíslp̓tn. Stick to stir the fire with. swr̓ísəlp̓. Fire. w̓r̓islp̓m. Make / build a fire. snwr̓íslp̓tn. Cooking stove. Sp šléslkʷ̓-p-m he chopped firewood; Sh -esl̕p̓ house- or campfire; Th esyèp̓, e'syep̓, sip̓ firewood; Li -úsləp̓ / -sləp̓ firewood.

isthilíntn   [isthilíntn] Morph: isthilín+tn ? Etym: √thln ?. isthilíntn: a creek near Oliver. isthilíntən. Name of a creek near Oliver.

íst̓yaʔ   [íst̓yaʔ] Morph: íst̓yaʔ. Variant: st̓ya. grass. sk̓k̓wl̕xíst̓iyaʔ. Rush. sx̌síst̓iyaʔ. Sweetgrass. səlk̓íst̓iyaʔ. Bear grass. sx̌ʷx̌ʷntkʷíst̓iyaʔ. Junegrass. Sh -est̓ye grass.

isx   [isx] Morph: isx. Variant: isxn; sxn; sxn̓; sx; ísaʔxn; aʕsxn. Gram: variant of isxn before -iʔ transitive stone; rock; round object. kc̓íˑˑw̓sxiʔs. He washes (the potatoes). kəlq̓ísxiʔs. He slices them.

isxn   [ísxən] Morph: isxn. Variant: sxn; sxn̓; isx; sx; ísaʔxn; aʕsxn. 1 • stone; rock; small round object; fire light. clkstísxən. Five stones. kcaʔxísxən. The iron heats. nc̓əw̓c̓aʕ̓ʷwísxn. Chokecherry. kaʔɬlísxən. Three stones. ntk̓əwlxísxn. Field bindweed. klq̓ísxən. To peel off round objects (tubers, potatoes...). ckɬx̌ʷísxən. A hollow in a rock. msísxən. Four stones. nəqsísxən. One stone. pən̓pən̓əməkxísxn̓. Cup lichen. ssp̓lk̓ísxən. Seven stones. x̌əx̌n̓ɬísxən. Nine stones. ʔaslísxən. Two stones. nʔakʷʔakʷtísxn. Field bindweed.

2 • forehead; hair. kc̓əwqqísxnəm. To pull s.t. out of the hair. ct̓qʷísxən. Tomahawk. Sp -esšn̓ rock, round object; See Cm piq-s-xn silver; Sh -esxn rock.

-it   [it] Morph: -it. Variant: -t. first person plural transitive subject (weak stems).

1 • with +nt. c̓əlxəntsít. We grabbed you. c̓əx̌ʷntsít. We correct you. məlx̌[aʔ]ntsít. We called you a liar.

2 • with +ɬt. ƛ̓aʔɬtsít. We got it for you.

ítaʔkʷ   [ítaʔkʷ] Morph: ítaʔkʷ. Variant: itkʷ; atkʷ; tkʷ; aʕtkʷ; ikʷ; kʷ. water. ck̓ʷək̓ʷn̓ítaʔkʷ. Shallow waters.

itíʔ   [itíʔ] Morph: itíʔ. Etym: √tʔ. that; from that; that's when. itíʔ mi kʷ xʷuy, ixíʔ mi kʷ qəltmíxʷ. That's the way you will go, you will be a man. məɬ itíʔ mi cxʷəlxʷált ta c̓iɬn uɬ ixíʔ mrímstən. They will get life from that as food and as medicine. way̓ itíʔ ki kʷulsts. That's when he sent them. ṇt̓aʔ, ʕác̓ənt kʷaʔ itíʔ kiyíc̓ásq̓ət, taʔlíʔ c̓aɬt. Well, look how clear it is, it's very cold. itíʔ kiʔ qíltəlx. They went right over that hill. ilíʔ kʷ ɬ x̌ilm itíʔ ixíʔ l aspaʔpaʔsílx. If you do that you'll be sorry. cm̓ay t̓i kʷ ɬ x̌íləm itíʔ, cm̓ay lut ksx̌əstmíxaʔx k̓ anwí. If you do that, no good will come to you. uɬ ilíʔ kʷu x̌ílstəm itíʔ. That's what they did to us. c̓x̌iɬ itíʔ akscxʷúy. That's the way you should behave. məɬ xʷuˑˑy itíʔ cxʷilwís. He was going, walking around any old place. níkna way̓ kʷu kʷuksts itíʔ iʔ t int̓aq̓əltáʕn. Goodness, that woman sure pleased me. xʷaʔspíntk ki itíʔ kən cxʷilwís. It's been many years since I traveled around there. uɬ axáʔ spáɬaʔ t̓a cx̌íƛ̓əm. kʷaʔ t̓i wíksəlx, ksx̌an itíʔ. Then spáɬaʔ came up the hill. They saw her go by there. uɬ ixíʔ k̓ʷul̕s iʔ sənʔímaʔts ta kɬcq̓íləns, k̓ʷək̓ʷyúmaʔ iʔ ckʷinks, uɬ cəcámaʔt iʔ cq̓íləns. itíʔ kaʔ ct̓aʕpstís iʔ ʕan̓ iʔ naʔɬ qʷásqiʔ. And she made her grandson arrows, a small bow, and small arrows. With them he shot magpies and bluejays. See: c̓x̌iɬ itíʔ.

itkʷ   [itkʷ] Morph: itkʷ. Variant: atkʷ; tkʷ; ítaʔkʷ; aʕtkʷ; ikʷ; kʷ. water. nckʷítkʷ. To pull s.t. out of the water. scqitkʷ. Twin Lakes, near Inchelium. nc̓əspítkʷ. Liquid is all gone. ṇc̓əwqítkʷən. To take s.t out of the water. nk̓əlxʷítkʷ. To disappear in the water. nkʷəlkʷəlwtítkʷ. Water hemlock. nkʷriʔítkʷ. Yellow lake. k̓ʷəlk̓ítkʷəm. The water rolls up. nɬq̓ʷtitkʷ. To lie in a bath tub. ɬaʔmcnítkʷ. Next to the shore. ṇmaʕítkʷ. A log in the water. npəʕ̓ʷlxítkʷ SansPoil River. sənp̓k̓ʷitkʷ. Porridge; gravy. cqəqcnítkʷ. To land (on shore). nqəmnítkʷs. To put liquid in s.t. cnq̓ʷʔitkʷ. To do laundry. nsaʔp̓mnítkʷ. Water bugs. saʔtítkʷ. Rivers. ntx̌ʷitkʷ. River. ct̓əpwítkʷəm. Water bubbles over as from undercurrent. əct̓əqcnítkʷ To lie on the shore. kɬt̓ustítkʷ. To stand on the water. nt̓ustítkʷ. To stand in the water. nxəxt̓itkʷ. Place name. cxʷʔítkʷəm. The water is high. nx̌aʔx̌ʔítkʷ. Water monster. sx̌ʷnitkʷ. Kettle Falls. k̓əwsnpəkʷmnítkʷ. To go throw s.t. in the water. nʔask̓ʷlítkʷ. To throw s.t. in the water. Sp √‑etkʷ (‑kʷ) (‑ekʷ) water; Cr kʷeʔ; Sh -et-kʷe water; Th etkʷəw, átkʷu water; Li -atkʷaʔ, -atqʷaʔ water.

itlíʔ   [itlíʔ] Morph: itlíʔ. Etym: √tlʔ. Variant: itl̕íʔ. 1 • from there. itlíʔ kən kɬnxaʔcín. I have ancestors from there. uɬ ixíʔ nák̓ʷəm ixíʔ iʔ nyʕ̓as ɬc̓q̓mis uɬ iʔ k̓əl təmxʷúlaʔxʷs ik̓líʔ itlíʔ. He threw his spear all the way to his country, from there to there. ixíʔ cxʷuy, məɬ qíltəlx uɬ itlíʔ xʷúyḷx, məɬ itlíʔ ṇsaʕməncútəlx. yaʔx̌íʔ itlíʔ iʔ cxʷuy c̓úmlaʔxʷs. He named the place from where he came. ixíʔ uɬ ckník̓əms itlíʔ uɬ ixíʔ sʔiɬəns. He cut off from there and ate. They go, and they get to the top, and they keep on going, and then they go down the hill.

2 • from that time; then. ilíˑˑʔ, uɬ itlíʔ xʷuyˑ iʔ suknaqínx. They were there a while, then the Okanagans were gone. kən man̓xʷm, mi sic itlíʔ kən qʷəlqʷílt iʔ t k̓ʷk̓ʷínaʔ. I'll smoke, and then I'll talk some more. ixíʔ uɬ way̓ taʔlíʔ xʷaʔspíntk itlíʔ k̓aɬáʔ. It has been too many years since then. itlíʔ nixʷ uɬ lut t̓a ɬəcmistín. I don't remember more than that.

3 • for that reason; from that source. x̌əl itlíʔ x̌ast aksk̓ʷúl̕əm. For that reason you should treat it well. uɬ itlíʔ isqʷəsqʷaʔsíʔa naʔɬ intkəɬmílxʷ yayʕát kʷu c̓aɬʔíɬn itlíʔ. And from that my children and my wife, all of us can eat. cxʷic̓xmstn [ctumístmstən] ixíʔ, uɬ ixíʔ kən ckʷnim t kst̓ík̓əltət itlíʔ. I sold it, and from that I got grub. x̌aʔ, lut km̓a incá ism̓aʔm̓áy̓, ixíʔ inxaxʔít, itlíʔ kiʔ iscmipnwíɬən. these are not my stories, they are my ancestors' that's who I learned them from. itlíʔ nixʷ uɬ lut t̓a ɬəcmistín. I don't remember more than that.

itl̕íʔ   [itl̕íʔ] Morph: itl̕íʔ. Variant: itlíʔ. Etym: √tl̕ʔ. from there. See: itlíʔ.

ítx̌ʷaʔ   [ítx̌ʷaʔ] Morph: ʔítx̌ʷaʔ. Etym: √ʔtx̌ʷʔ. black camas (camassia quamash). ítx̌ʷaʔ See: ʔítx̌ʷaʔ.

iwá   [iwá] Morph: iwá. Variant: iwám. 1 • even; even if; even though. ixíʔ t̓əxʷ way̓ iwá ctkəxstín, uɬ aɬíʔ kən sx̌ʷuptx ʕapnáʔ. Even though I have followed that, now I am feeble. uɬ ixíʔ iwá scʕimts uɬ ixíʔ iwá ksk̓ʷaʔntís n̓ín̓wiʔ. Even as mad as he is, he is going to bite it. t̓i iwá axáʔ iʔ kʷu ask̓ʷíƛ̓təm kəm̓ anƛ̓ax̌əx̌ƛ̓x̌áp. Even we who are your brothers, or your parents... kəm̓ caʔkʷ iwá kən ɬaʔ wr̓ísəlp̓əm, uɬ way̓ kən kskslípaʔx. Even if I make fire, I still have to get wood. iwá ṇqʷən̓qʷən̓tmínn, incá iʔ kən ksqʷən̓qʷán̓taʔx. Even if I get hard up, it is I who would be hard up.

2 • try to. ilíʔ kiʔ ɬíx̌ʷpəntməlx kəm̓áx̌əntməlx iwá. That's where they got away when they tried to capture them. mat way̓ iwá ik̓líʔ ksənʔúcxiʔs, itíʔ sʕasáʕt iʔ snəqsílxʷs. He was trying to follow them where his people fell off. caʔkʷ iwáˑˑ kʷ k̓ʷul̕l̕ t stim̓ way̓ t̓i kʷ ikspúlstəm. Whatever you might turn into, I am going to kill you. uɬ iwá x̌aʔntín, cun way̓ lut way̓ lut t̓ akskənɬúxʷtəm I tried to stop him, I said to him, don't go in the brush.

3 • no matter, to no avail. uɬ talíʔ kʷu cx̌ast pnicí iwá sk̓ʷək̓ʷínaʔs iʔ sx̌áq̓əq̓t iʔ l sk̓ʷúl̕əm. At that time were were satisfied, no matter how small our pay for work. uɬ iwá síwəntəm swit iʔ kɬƛ̓əx̌ƛ̓x̌áps. And for nothing we asked her who its father is. way̓ ixíʔ iwá kiʔ kʷu ɬ ckswítmist yaʔx̌íʔ təl naqs təmxʷúlaʔxʷ kiʔ ksásq̓təm. For nothing we did our best (to come back) from another country when the storm came. axáʔ iwá tqəlpməncút axáʔ iʔ tkɬmilxʷ, t̓i qʕay. The woman tried to squirm around, but it's like a vise. Sp weʔ cúʔ-n-t-xʷ even though you've already told them; see Cr uw̓+em̓n̓ús he s+míʔyem worthless (a woman who is...); uw̓e+n+púʔs+n abstract (lit. only in imagination); Sh weʔ at least, (what-, how-)ever; Th we ... in vain, to no avail. See: iwám.

iwám   [iwám] Morph: iwá+m. Variant: iwá. Etym: iwá. even though; try to. la cxʔit iwám k̓əɬqíxʷs iʔ sx̌ílwiʔs. At first she tried to take up for her husband. iwám iskʷíst Anthony uɬ x̌əl t̓ət̓aq̓aʔt uɬ Tony. My name is Anthony and Tony for short. Lit: Though my name is Anthony, it's Tony for short. See: iwá.

íwaʔt   [íwaʔt] Morph: íwaʔt. Variant: iwt; wt. place. kʷkʷəl̕íwaʔt. To be sitting around here. məkʷíwaʔt. Little mounds. pəpɬíwaʔt. Scattered on the ground. qəqmənʔíwaʔt. To lie here and there.

iwl   [iwl] Morph: iwl. Variant: iwɬ. boat, conveyance; water creature. snx̌x̌ʔíwləm. Chief of water creatures. sncqiwltn. Parking for boats. nc̓xʷiwltn. Gasoline. Sp √‑ew̓l (‑ew̓ɬ) (‑ew̓) (‑wiɬ) boat, vehicle; Cr gʷl, -gʷl̕ hollow object, abdomen, wagon, canoe; Sh -əw̓iɬ / -əwil̕ / ew̓l conveyance; trip; Th awíɬ. éwíɬ, awɬ canoe; Li -awɬ, -wiɬ, -awiɬ comveyance (car, wagon, boat, canoe).

iwɬ   [iwɬ] Morph: iwɬ. Variant: iwl; wiɬ. boat, conveyance. cəlkstíwɬ. Five boats, cars, wagons, conveyances. sncqiwɬtn. Garage. Lit: place for a conveyance ʕacʕacəcníwɬ. To tie a boat. ʔasəlíwɬ. Two boats. Gram: in the following botanical term pəspəsníwɬtn. Rye grass.

iwt   [iwt] Morph: iwt. Variant: íwaʔt. place. kʷliwt. To dwell. sənkɬkʷlíwtən. Chairs. mkʷəmkʷíwt. Mountains. mkʷiwt. A lump (buried game). pɬiwt. Scattered about. qʷm̓iwt. Long ago. qʷən̓íwtəm. To pass out. ɬt̓x̌íwtəm. Next year. t̓əst̓x̌íwt. Last year. x̌sx̌spʔíwt. Benefit. k̓əmɬníwt. Tp sit by s.o.'s side. Sp √‑ewt (‑ew̓t) scattered; Sh -ewt position, state; area; Th //ewt// isolated area or time ...; remote area... See: niw̓t.

iw̓   [iw̓] Morph: iw̓s. Variant: iw̓s; aw̓s; íw̓aʔs; w̓s; aʕw̓s. middle; center; across. Gram: variant of iw̓s (q.v) before ɬ nsq̓íw̓ɬtəm. To split s.t. in two with s.o.. nʔayxʷíwɬtəm. To trade s.o.'s s.t.

íw̓aʔs   [íw̓aʔs] Morph: íw̓aʔs. Variant: iw̓s; aw̓s; iw̓; w̓s; aʕw̓s. middle; center; across. sc̓c̓míw̓aʔs. A narrow place. kɬkɬkíwaʔs. Anemone. cənq̓əq̓əʔq̓ʔíwaʔs. A little sandwich. kɬx̌əx̌síw̓aʔs. A small field.

iw̓s   [iw̓s] Morph: iw̓s. Variant: aw̓s; w̓s; aʕw̓s; íw̓aʔs. 1 • middle; center; across. ṇc̓əpq̓síw̓səm. To splice s.t. nkɬíw̓səntəm. To divide s.t. nkiʔíw̓s. Rattlesnake plantain. sənkaʔkʔíw̓s. Soul. nkaʔɬəlmiw̓s. Three layers. nk̓əmsíw̓stxən. The back of knees/legs. sk̓miw̓s. Back. sk̓əɬk̓míw̓s. Chest. ṇk̓riw̓s. To cut s.t. in the middle. tkʷəl̕íw̓s. Horse riders. sntkʷl̕kʷall̕íw̓stn̓. Thistles. ḷk̓iw̓səm. To tie bundles. sənləkʷtíw̓s. Width. lq̓ʷəlq̓ʷíw̓s. To break in two. kɬmiw̓s. To be in the middle of s.t. flat (prairie, lake). nɬp̓íw̓ɬtəm. To put a line through s.t. nɬq̓iw̓s. Width; area between. kɬqʷíw̓səntəm. To drape s.t. over s.t. ṇɬxʷíw̓s. In the herd. ƛ̓ək̓ʷpíw̓s. To pick. ṇƛ̓aʔsíw̓s. To look for. sənpəllíw̓s. Growth (e.g. of weeds); asparagus; pigweed. ṇpəpəlxíw̓s. To get (back) in the herd. kp̓ənxníw̓səm. To have one's feet on s.t. ckʷənɬənq̓ʔíw̓s. To have a fork in the hand. ṇq̓aʔq̓ʔíw̓s. To put s.t. in the center. ṇsək̓ʷtsíw̓s. To fall to one side. nsq̓íw̓s. Split. cksq̓íw̓s. Canyon. tl̕íw̓səntəm. To break or cut s.t. open. ntqiw̓s. A dam. tx̌ʷiw̓s. Middle; divide; open in half. tx̌ʷíw̓stəm. To divide s.t. t̓k̓ʷiw̓s. To lay s.t. down on s.t. t̓ʔiw̓s. A flat place. kt̓əl̕t̓l̕íw̓s. Torn in the middle. ckt̓píw̓s. Balanced in the middle. kt̓əwstíw̓s. To stand on s.t. nuksíw̓sntəm. To see s.o. in a crowd. nulq̓síw̓sntəm. To open s.t. (e.g. a book). nxəmníw̓s. On both sides. nxníw̓sntəm. To shut s.t. (e.g. a book). sxʷnxt̓íw̓səm. Compartmentalizer. nxt̓íw̓səntəm. To divide or compartmentalize s.t. txt̓íw̓səm. To aim at s.t. (with bow and arrow). nx̌qiw̓s. An open place. kɬx̌siw̓s. Level country. skʕacíw̓s. Week. nʕ̓ʷalíw̓s. A partition. nk̓amtíw̓stn. A saddle horse. k̓amtíw̓s. To ride (a horse).

2 • with one another. c̓əp̓q̓síw̓səm. To splice s.t. kəlkəlxíw̓s. Salamander. k̓k̓tiw̓slx. To be close together. l̕əx̌tíw̓səm. To go partners. kɬaʔmíw̓s. To get close to one another. nqsəlxʷíw̓s. To be closely related. nəx̌ʷnx̌ʷíw̓s. A couple. q̓ɬíw̓s. To put together. sntqʷlqʷltíw̓stn. Phone number. sqʷsaʔltíw̓s. Siblings. snʕacsíw̓s. Joints. ʔawʔawtíw̓s. To sneak up. nʔayxʷíw̓s. To trade for s.t.; to exchange, barter. ʔayxʷmənwíw̓s. Two things crossed / swapped. nq̓əy̓q̓əy̓íw̓s. Spike buck (two points split).

3 • ? səsr̓iw̓s. Sucker fish. tkʷuʔkʷíw̓s. Pairs. q̓yiw̓s. To doubt s.o. ƛ̓ək̓ʷpíw̓s. To pick. Sp √‑ew̓s (‑ew̓st) middle, half, center; Cr iw̓es, w̓es, áw̓as, ew̓es, iw̓es between, together, be in contact; mutually; Sh -ews surface; half, middle; mutual; Th íw̓s middle; Li -aw̓s (1) middle; (2) collective; (3) trail, road; (4) to work during the ...; -iw̓s day.

ixíxiʔ   [ixíxiʔ] Morph: ixíxiʔ. Variant: ayxáxaʔ. Etym: √xʔ. this much; this long; a little while. ixíxiʔ scxʷist iʔ tl isnilíʔtn ilíʔ inxaʔxʔít kiʔ sənilíʔtnsəlx. A short walk from my house that's where my ancestors live. uɬ t spəpl̕ínaʔ xʷʔíltəm məɬ k̓əwáp l ixíxiʔ. Then Rabbit held it too and for a little while it stopped. t̓iʔ ixíxiʔ məɬ way̓ c̓ácqaʔ. A little while she comes out. lut kʷu t̓a cƛ̓lap, t̓iʔ ixíxiʔ məɬ kʷu wiʔsk̓əɬcíqəm. We never stop, in just a little while we have our grave dug. kʷnim t yáq̓ʷiʔ, mat ixíxiʔ, iʔ yáq̓ʷiʔ. Take a rotten little stick, about so big, a rotten stick. See: ayxáxaʔ.

ixíʔ   [ixíʔ] Morph: ixíʔ. Etym: . Variant: ixíʔm. Gram: the distribution of ixíʔ vs ixíʔm is unclear ixíʔ məɬ way̓ iʔ knaqs t̓i ɬckicx, That's when one gets back here, ixíʔ cuntm iʔ t sámaʔ, way̓ uɬ taɬt kʷ cmálˑx̌aʔ. The white man said to him, "You're sure lying." kʷu cus, haʔ ixíʔ k̓ʷúl̕əntxʷ. he told me: "Did you do it?" uɬ ixíʔ kən lk̓ak̓. And then I was in jail. uɬ ixíʔ way̓ ƛ̓lal ixíʔ kʷu m̓ay̓xíts. And he's already dead, the one that told me the story. way̓ ixíʔ. And that's all. caʔkʷ lut aksəntíls, axáʔ iksq̓əy̓ám məɬ ixíʔ ikstumístm. But don't be thinking: "This that I am writing, I'll sell it." lut ixíʔ t̓a nk̓ʷúl̕mn. That's not the way one should do things. way̓, n̓ín̓w̓iʔs ixíʔ cx̌litn marí. Yes, I'll call Mary. ixíʔ mi cʕacɬtíp ṇt̓k̓ʷíkiʔɬtp. That's the one you'll tie up and saddle up. uɬ axáʔ iʔ k̓ʷíƛ̓ət uɬ way̓ ƛ̓áxʷt, way̓ uɬ ixíʔ ƛ̓axʷt mat ixíʔ ṇxaʔtmíw̓s. Some of them are dead, yes, the first ones are dead. way̓ t̓əxʷ wiʔásq̓ət, uɬ ixíʔ ḷ səncaʔx̌úlaʔxʷ yaʔ ɬ ṇk̓ʷúl̕cnəm. It quit raining, and the sky painted a red hot weather. uɬ ixíʔ n̓ín̓w̓iʔ yəyʕát axáʔ ḷ təmxʷúlaʔxʷ ƛ̓xʷəxʷnúntxʷ axáʔ iʔ ṇʔəɬnaʔsqílxʷtṇ, ixíʔ mi kʷ wʔíkst. You will kill all the maneaters in this world, that's when you are done. See: axáʔ.

ixíʔ uɬ   that's when. ixíʔ uɬ kʷ xʷt̓t̓əpnúmt. That̓s when you jump up. ixíʔ uɬ kʷ ɬq̓ílx, ixíʔ uɬ kʷ ɬx̌ʷáq̓ʷəlqsəm. That̓s when you go to bed, and start snoring again.

ixíʔm   Morph: ixíʔ+m. Etym: √xʔ. that; there; then. Variant: ixíʔ. Gram: the distribution of ixíʔ vs ixíʔm is unclear ixíʔm iʔ l scʔaqʷ mat. Maybe that's during the summer. ixíʔm aɬíʔ q̓sápiʔ kʷa ixíʔ t̓iʔ iʔ təmtmútənsəlx Long time ago that's all they had to wear. ixíʔm iʔ xatmaʔsqílxʷ ɬaʔ kɬənk̓ʷúl̕mən a cənqəxʷpənwíxʷ It used to be the old timers' custom to whip each other's horses. uɬ ixíʔṃ anwí antəmxʷúlaʔxʷ, uɬ lut cənx̌íləmstxʷ. That's your country, and you're not afraid. See: ixíʔ.

ixkn   [íxkən] Morph: ixkn. suffix found in the following form. sx̌ʷlixkn. Bucks shedding their horns; male white tailed deer. Sp s-x̌ʷl̕ésčn̓ white-tailed buck deer with two points, male antelope; Sh sx̌ʷlexkn buck; Th s/x̌ʷy̓éxkn buck deer; Li s.x̌ʷláxkən, s.x̌ʷl̕áxkən buck. See: kn.

-ixʷ   [ixʷ] Morph: -ixʷ. Variant: -xʷ2. second person singular transitive subject marker.

1 • with +nt. ƛ̓aʔntíxʷ. You fetch it. ƛ̓aʔƛ̓aʔntíxʷ. You look for it. k̓ʷaʔntíxʷ. You bite it. q̓aʔxəntíxʷ. You provide tires. nc̓əxʷəntíxʷ. You fill it up. məc̓əntíxʷ. You grease it. c̓kəntíxʷ. You count them. ʕaƛ̓ntíxʷ. You gnaw it. c̓aʔsəntíxʷ. You pick a leftover. p̓əɬqəntíxʷ. You piled it (clothes, wood). xləntíxʷ. You chopped it. kc̓kəntíxʷ. You counted people. ycəntíxʷ. You wrinkled it. kʷu kʕaxʷəntíxʷ You hollered at me. xn̓ntíxʷ. You laid it down. txəməntíxʷ. You stuck them in. kʷu c̓əlxəntíxʷ. You grabbed me.

2 • with +st. iʔ stim̓ aʔ ctxt̓stíxʷ. Whatever you take care of. kʷu cc̓x̌ʷc̓x̌ʷstixʷ. You always discipline me. Ques: add +ɬtixʷ etc.

iyáʕp   [iyáʕp] Morph: yi•yáʕ+p. Etym: √yʕ. several arrive. See: yiyáʕp.

íyaʔ   [íyaʔ] Morph: íyaʔ. ? k̓əɬk̓ənˑíyaʔntsən. I've heard you. sk̓ənˑíyaʔs. He heard.

iys   [iˑs] Morph: iys. Variant: iy̓s; iʔs. 1 • tooth. ṇc̓əwqísəm. To pull out a tooth. nmtmáʕtiys. Worn out teeth. nmáʕiys. Broken tooth. nsəp̓əp̓íys. To get hit on the teeth. nxʷúkʷiysəm. Pull a tooth.

2 • edge. ɬaʔíys. Get to the edge. xəlkíys. Place name.

3 • rain, snow. xʷʔiys. Hard rain. pqʷqʷíys. Snow is falling. sxʷtiys. Lots of rain. kət̓píys. It quit snowing. Sp √‑eys rain, tooth; ccm̓éy̓s tiny tooth; Cr ins, ens tooth; Sh -en̓s tooth; Th anís, énis tooth; Li k̓m-ánis edge.

1   [iʔ] Morph: . Etym: . 1 • article. Variant: a(ʔ)2; (y)a. kícsəlx iʔ cwix. They arrived at the creek. yayʕát iʔ kʷu sqilxʷ. We are all Indians. x̌ast iʔ sənyak̓ʷqín. It's a nice afternoon. ʔasíl iʔ təmxʷúlaʔxʷ x̌əl anwí. There are two worlds for you. lut iʔ naqs təmxʷúlaʔxʷ lut t̓ kícən. There is not a country that I have not been to.

2 • relative pronoun (subject) who, what, that. susuw̓ít iʔ p ack̓ʷúl̕əm, yaʔ ctixʷstp. Those of you that are working, the things that you are gathering... anlʔíw iʔ kʷu m̓ay̓xíts, mi p̓úƛ̓əmstxʷ. Your father is the one that told me until you ended. axáʔ iʔ m̓ay̓xítmən. This is the story I told you. kaʔɬlíp iskəkʕákaʔ iʔ sct̓áp̓s. My hen laid 3 eggs [what my hen laid is three eggs]. t̓əxʷ t inlʔíw iʔ cus axáʔ iʔ suyápix. It's my father who said to the white man... incá iʔ kən k̓ʷəl̕əncútən. I am the one who is God. uɬ aɬíʔ mat way̓ mipnús səmx̌íkən iʔ kʷis iʔ wísxən iʔ c̓q̓ílən. I guess he found out Grizzly is the one who took the longest arrow.

3 • relative pronoun (object) that, whom, what. ixíʔ iʔ sámaʔ iʔ x̌əmínks. That̓s what the white man wanted. ixíʔ iʔ xʷíc̓ɬtəm. That's what was given. kən k̓ʷək̓ʷínaʔcn iʔ kʷ iksm̓ay̓xítəm iʔ l sk̓ʕam. What I am going to tell you about praying I will say in a few words. taɬt x̌ast iʔ k̓ʷəl̕núntxʷ. You did very well [what you did is very good]. aɬíʔ ck̓əɬqʷíylx t̓i kmax nk̓əmm̓ílps iʔ wíkən. Because they were hidden [by fir branches], all I could see was necks. iʔ cxʷúystən iksck̓ʷúl̕ k̓l isnɬq̓ʷútən mi k̓ʷúl̕ən. I'll do the work I brought back in my bedroom.

4 • relative pronoun (object with locative proclitics) to whom, to which, from whom, from which... mi kʷ xʷuy iʔ k̓əl kmálx̌aʔnts. You will go to the one that lied about you. t̓əxʷ ixíʔ k̓ʷəl̕əncútən iʔ təl sqʷəsqʷaʔsíʔas. That's one of the Creator's children. iʔ l aspuʔús way̓ cmistín. I know what's in your mind. way̓ ixíʔ iʔ cúntməlx axáʔ iʔ t təkɬmílxʷ. That's what the woman told them. mat iʔ l sʔistk. Maybe in the winter.

5 • complementizer that. ik̓líʔ nixʷ iʔ kʷu ksnəqsílxʷ. There too [that] we have relatives. way̓ iɬəɬcxʷúy, kən ɬcxʷuy nkʷəkʷʔác iʔ kən ɬckicx. Then I came back, I came back and I got back after dark [it was after dark that I got back]. way̓ i kʷu skɬəwscúts. Then we parted [it's then that we parted]. way̓ t̓əxʷ iʔ kʷu ʔalʔílxʷt uɬ way̓ xʷʔit iʔ sc̓íɬəntət. [It's that] we were plenty hungry and we got lots to eat. See: ; i; ya.

+iʔ2   [iʔ] Morph: +y̓. Variant: +nt. allomorph of -nt transitive in subjunctive forms. See: +y̓.

+iʔ3   [iʔ] Morph: +iʔ. suffix with reference to time. laʔ cxʔítiʔ. At first; the first time. q̓sápiʔ. A long time ago. lútiʔ. Not yet. pútiʔ. Still.

iʔ aʔkɬm̓l̕m̓l̕tíɬp   [iʔ aʔkɬm̓əl̕m̓əl̕tíɬp] Morph: iʔ aʔkɬ+m̓l̕•m̓l̕+tíɬp. Etym: √ml̕. iʔ aʔkɬm̓l̕m̓l̕tíɬp: the area where Moore Draw formerly entered the west side of the Columbia. Lit: place of trembling aspen iʔ aʔkɬm̓əl̕m̓əl̕tíɬp. See: m̓l̕m̓l̕tiɬp.

iʔ aʔksml̕áʕlaʔxʷ   [iʔ aʔksml̕áʕlaʔxʷ] Morph: iʔ aʔk+s+ml̕áʕlaʔxʷ. Etym: √ml̕. iʔ aʔksml̕áʕlaʔxʷ: the creek known locally as Cornstalk Creek. Lit: place of clay ground iʔ aʔksml̕áʕlaʔxʷ. See: smláʕlaʔxʷ.

iʔ aʔksnmán̓xʷtn   [iʔ aʔksnmán̓xʷtṇ] Morph: iʔ aʔk+s+n+mán̓xʷ+tn. Etym: √mnxʷ. iʔ aʔksnmán̓xʷtn: a bench of land west from the former west side of the Columbia. The place to get the rock known as snman̓xʷtn, from which bowls for smoking pipes were made. Lit: place of smoking pipe-bowl rock iʔ aʔksnmán̓xʷtn. See: snmán̓xʷtn.

iʔ aʔkst̓qíʔstn   [iʔ aʔkst̓qíʔstn] Morph: iʔ aʔk+s+t̓qíʔst+n. Etym: √t̓q. iʔ aʔkst̓qíʔstn: the area where the Rogers Bar church is today. Lit: place of sloughgrass iʔ aʔkst̓qíʔstn. See: st̓qíʔstn.

iʔ lútiʔ   [i lútiʔ] Morph: iʔ lút+iʔ. Variant: i lútiʔ. Etym: √lt. not yet. uɬ iʔ lútiʔ wiʔstín, uɬ náq̓ʷmsəlx. And I haven't finished yet, and they stole them. cəm̓ i lútiʔ. Maybe before. See: lútiʔ.

iʔ t cu   [iʔ t cu] Morph: iʔ t cu. Etym: √cn. as one said. uɬ ixíʔ iʔ t cun way̓ t̓i kmix naqs səntumístən ilíʔ iʔ l sk̓əɬʔálˑqʷaʔ. like I said there was only one store at Marcus [at the shore]. ʕác̓ənt axáʔ pna axáʔ anwí iʔ t cuntxʷ, kʷ ksnəqsílxʷ. Look, as you said, you have relatives.

iʔc̓iʔstn̓   [iʔc̓íʔstn̓] Morph: y̓c̓iʔs+tn̓. Etym: √yc̓. small horsetail (equisetum laevigatum). iʔc̓iʔstn̓. See: y̓c̓iʔstn̓.

iʔɬp   [iʔɬp] Morph: iʔɬp. Variant: iɬp; ɬp; íɬaʔp; aɬp. plant; bush. sk̓əw̓k̓əw̓íʔɬp. White bark pine.

íʔpustxn   [íʔpustxən] Morph: íʔpustxn. step. kʷətxʷlíʔpustxən. Irregular stride. nɬəɬqʷíʔpustxən. Diaper. See: xn.

iʔst1   [iʔst] Morph: iʔst. 1 • arrow; bullet; weapon. kaʔɬlʔíst. Three bullets, arrows. nəqsíʔst. One arrow. stqpíʔstṇ. Feathers (on an arrow). ʔaslʔíst. Two bullets, arrows.

2 • in botanical terms. səl̕íʔst. Pinedrops and pinesap. səsániʔstn. Pearly everlasting.

3 • ? ncq̓q̓íʔst. To hit the nail. haw̓híw̓iʔst. Yawning. kət̓píʔst. To finally cut something off. k̓ʷl̕l̕iʔst. To be working hard. snmaʕtkʷíʔst. Place name. təkʷkʷaʔtíʔst. To get started. ṇt̓əwíʔst. Horses in the barn. t̓aʕppíʔstəm. To get a chance to shoot. suʔwíkiʔst. Electricity. k̓əɬʔawcníʔstəm. To make a mistake. Cr iʔst, aʔst, eʔst surface of round object, rock; Sh -elst rock; Th iʔst, ey̓st stone.

iʔst2   [iʔst] Morph: iʔst. manage to; accidentally do. ɬxʷəsəstíʔst. Be able to walk again. ʔatətxiʔst. Manage to (get to) sleep. x̌səstíʔst. To get lucky. qəɬníʔst. Manage to get it done. ct̓aʕppíʔst. Manage to get it killed by shooting. yílpiʔst. Be able to hit something. isílpiʔst. To be able to hit something. ʔaɬəɬníʔst. Manage to get something to eat. tumˑstíʔst. Be able to buy something. ɬxʷyíʔst Be able to go again. kʷniʔst. Manage to get s.t. Sh xík̓-eʔst guess wrong in lehel-game.

iʔstn   [íʔstən] Morph: iʔstn. ? stqpíʔstən. Feather. nq̓ʷɬtíʔstən. Arrow holder. See: iʔst1.

iʔxʷxʷ   [iʔxʷxʷ] Morph: iʔxʷxʷ. unclear semantic import. iʔxʷxʷ anwí. Get real!

iˑˑ   [iˑ] Morph: i. unclear semantic import. iˑ uɬ k̓laxʷ uɬ aɬíʔ sc̓qʷaqʷ. Night come, and she was crying.